CentOS下yum命令安装计划任务程序crontab

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概述

利用“任务计划”,可以将任何脚本、程序或文档安排在某个最方便的时间运行。通俗的讲就是定时执行某个脚本、程序。

常见用途

定时关机
定时检查更新
定时对系统配置、数据库、日志进行备份
定时清理垃圾文件

检测是否已安装

# crontab -bash: crontab: command not found

执行 crontab 命令如果报 command not found,就表明没有安装.

开始安装

# yum -y install vixie-cron Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security Existing lock /var/run/yum.pid: another copy is running as pid 25960. Another app is currently holding the yum lock; waiting for it to exit...

可能是系统自动升级正在运行,yum在锁定状态中。 可以通过强制关掉yum进程: #rm -f /var/run/yum.pid 然后就可以使用yum了。

# yum -y install vixie-cron Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security Determining fastest mirrors * base: mirrors.btte.net * extras: mirrors.sina.cn * updates: mirrors.sina.cn base | 3.7 kB 00:00 extras | 3.4 kB 00:00 extras/primary_db | 32 kB 00:00 updates | 3.4 kB 00:00 updates/primary_db | 1.9 MB 00:07 Setting up Install Process Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package cronie.x86_64 0:1.4.4-15.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: dailyjobs for package: cronie-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: /usr/sbin/sendmail for package: cronie-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64 --> Running transaction check ---> Package cronie-anacron.x86_64 0:1.4.4-15.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: crontabs for package: cronie-anacron-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64 ---> Package sendmail.x86_64 0:8.14.4-9.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: procmail for package: sendmail-8.14.4-9.el6.x86_64 --> Running transaction check ---> Package crontabs.noarch 0:1.10-33.el6 will be installed ---> Package procmail.x86_64 0:3.22-25.1.el6_5.1 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved =============================================================================================================================================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size =============================================================================================================================================================================================== Installing: cronie x86_64 1.4.4-15.el6 base 74 k Installing for dependencies: cronie-anacron x86_64 1.4.4-15.el6 base 31 k crontabs noarch 1.10-33.el6 base 10 k procmail x86_64 3.22-25.1.el6_5.1 base 162 k sendmail x86_64 8.14.4-9.el6 base 716 k Transaction Summary =============================================================================================================================================================================================== Install 5 Package(s) Total download size: 994 k Installed size: 2.1 M Downloading Packages: (1/5): cronie-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64.rpm | 74 kB 00:00 (2/5): cronie-anacron-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64.rpm | 31 kB 00:00 (3/5): crontabs-1.10-33.el6.noarch.rpm | 10 kB 00:00 (4/5): procmail-3.22-25.1.el6_5.1.x86_64.rpm | 162 kB 00:00 (5/5): sendmail-8.14.4-9.el6.x86_64.rpm | 716 kB 00:00 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 1.3 MB/s | 994 kB 00:00 Running rpm_check_debug Running Transaction Test Transaction Test Succeeded Running Transaction Installing : procmail-3.22-25.1.el6_5.1.x86_64 1/5 Installing : sendmail-8.14.4-9.el6.x86_64 2/5 Installing : cronie-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64 3/5 Installing : crontabs-1.10-33.el6.noarch 4/5 Installing : cronie-anacron-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64 5/5 ERROR:dbus.proxies:Introspect error on :1.2513:/org/freedesktop/PackageKit: dbus.exceptions.DBusException: org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.NoReply: Did not receive a reply. Possible causes include: the remote application did not send a reply, the message bus security policy blocked the reply, the reply timeout expired, or the network connection was broken. Unable to send message to PackageKit Verifying : crontabs-1.10-33.el6.noarch 1/5 Verifying : cronie-anacron-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64 2/5 Verifying : sendmail-8.14.4-9.el6.x86_64 3/5 Verifying : cronie-1.4.4-15.el6.x86_64 4/5 Verifying : procmail-3.22-25.1.el6_5.1.x86_64 5/5 Installed: cronie.x86_64 0:1.4.4-15.el6 Dependency Installed: cronie-anacron.x86_64 0:1.4.4-15.el6 crontabs.noarch 0:1.10-33.el6 procmail.x86_64 0:3.22-25.1.el6_5.1 sendmail.x86_64 0:8.14.4-9.el6 Complete!

查看命令帮助

crontab 并不支持-h或–help之类的选项,不过还是可以通过它查看命令帮助

# crontab -h crontab:无效选项 -- h crontab: usage error: unrecognized option usage: crontab [-u user] file crontab [-u user] [ -e | -l | -r ] (default operation is replace, per 1003.2) -e (edit user's crontab) -l (list user's crontab) -r (delete user's crontab) -i (prompt before deleting user's crontab) -s (selinux context)

也可以使用 info crontab 命令查看详细的帮助信息。

cron服务提供crontab命令来设定cron服务的,以下是这个命令的一些参数与说明:

  crontab -u //设定某个用户的cron服务,一般root用户在执行这个命令的时候需要此参数

  crontab -l //列出某个用户cron服务的详细内容

  crontab -r //删除没个用户的cron服务

  crontab -e //编辑某个用户的cron服务

  比如说root查看自己的cron设置:crontab -u root -l

  再例如,root想删除fred的cron设置:crontab -u fred -r

  在编辑cron服务时,编辑的内容有一些格式和约定,输入:crontab -u root -e

  进入vi编辑模式,编辑的内容一定要符合下面的格式:/1* * * ls >> /tmp/ls.txt

服务状态控制

/sbin/service crond start //启动服务 /sbin/service crond stop //关闭服务 /sbin/service crond restart //重启服务 /sbin/service crond reload //重新载入配置 /sbin/service crond status //查看状态

或者使用

# service crond start # service crond stop # service crond restart # service crond reload # service crond status

开机启动

你也可以将这个服务在系统启动的时候自动启动: 在/etc/rc.d/rc.local这个脚本的末尾加上:

/sbin/service crond start

现在Cron这个服务已经在进程里面了,我们就可以用这个服务了。