CentOS系统下下的yum安装

分类:CentOS教程 阅读:71262 次

1.本地YUM配置


一、挂载本地光盘到系统

[root@centos mnt]# mkdir cd
[root@centos mnt]# mkdir cd1
[root@centos mnt]# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cd
[root@centos mnt]# mount /dev/cdrom1 /mnt/cd1




二、配置本地yum源

cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ #进入yum配置目录
vi CentOS-Media.repo #编辑配置文件,添加以下内容:


[GuangPan]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Media #自定义名称
baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom/ #本地光盘挂载路径
gpgcheck=0 #检查GPG-KEY,0为不检查,1为检查
enabled=1 #启用yum源,0为不启用,1为启用
==============================================================================
[root@centos ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
[root@centos yum.repos.d]# ls
CentOS-Base.repo123 CentOS-Media.repo CentOS-Vault.repo
CentOS-Debuginfo.repo123 CentOS-Media.repo.bak
[root@centos yum.repos.d]# vi CentOS-Media.repo
# CentOS-Media.repo
#
# This repo can be used with mounted DVD media, verify the mount point for
# CentOS-6. You can use this repo and yum to install items directly off the
# DVD ISO that we release.
#
# To use this repo, put in your DVD and use it with the other repos too:
# yum --enablerepo=c6-media [command]
#
# or for ONLY the media repo, do this:
#
# yum --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=c6-media [command]


[c6-media]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Media
baseurl=file:///mnt/cd
file:///mnt/cd1
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
~
~
~
~
"CentOS-Media.repo" 19L, 533C
=============================================================================

三、清除yum缓存,使用yum install自动安装软件


yum clean all #清除yum缓存



四、屏蔽网络yum的配置文件

CentOS需要将/etc/yum.rpos. d/目录下的CentOS-Base.repo、CentOS-Debuginfo.repo文件进行改名,这样就可以绕过网络进行本地源的安装。
具体命令如下:


cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
mv CentOS-Base.repo CentOS-Base.repo123
mv CentOS-Debuginfo.repo CentOS-Debuginfo.repo123


五、测试本地源的指定是否成功。



yum makecache 获取yum列表
出现下面提示,表示yum更改完成:
Metadata Cache Created





yum install php #安装php
yum remove php #卸载php


# yum list ----列出可安装的软件
# yum grouplist ----列出可安装的组件

# yum makecache ----同步缓存
# yum clean all ----清除所有缓存

#yum remove package ----删除软件包

#yum groupremove group ---- 删除某个组件的全部软件包
===================================================
#yum groupinstall 'X Window System' -y ----安装“X windows”组件

#yum groupinstall desktop

#yum groupremove 'K Desktop Environment' ----卸载 KDE 桌面环境


完成!


2.网络YUM配置

[转载]RedHat Enterprise Linux 6.4使用Centos 6 的yum源

思路:卸载redhat自带yum,然后下载centos的yum,安装后修改配置文件

1、首先到http://mirrors.163.com/centos下载软件包

x86 地址:http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/os/i386/Packages/

x86_64 地址:http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/os/x86_64/Packages/

必要下载的软件包有(以64位系统为例):

a python-iniparse-0.3.1-2.1.el6.noarch.rpm

b yum-3.2.29-40.el6.centos.noarch.rpm

c yum-metadata-parser-1.1.2-16.el6.x86_64.rpm

d yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.30-14.el6.noarch.rpm


下载命令:

wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/os/x86_64/Packages/python-iniparse-0.3.1-2.1.el6.noarch.rpm

wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/os/x86_64/Packages/yum-metadata-parser-1.1.2-16.el6.x86_64.rpm

wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/os/x86_64/Packages/yum-3.2.29-40.el6.centos.noarch.rpm

wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/os/x86_64/Packages/yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.30-14.el6.noarch.rpm

[注] :版本不一定要最新的


2、卸载RedHat自带的yum

rpm -qa | grep yum | xargs rpm -e --nodeps

注:a、xargs是一条Unix和类Unix操作系统的常用命令。它的作用是将参数列表转换成小块分段传递给其他命令,以避免参数列表过长的问题

b、--nodeps 强制卸载,不管依赖性


3、安装下载的centos的yum包:


rpm -ivh python-iniparse-0.3.1-2.1.el6.noarch.rpm

rpm -ivh yum-metadata-parser-1.1.2-16.el6.x86_64.rpm

rpm -ivh yum-3.2.29-40.el6.centos.noarch.rpm yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.30-14.el6.noarch.rpm

[注] :最后2个需要一起安装,否则会出现依赖性错误



4、到http://mirrors.163.com的 centos帮助文档 中下载CentOS6-Base-163.repo文件,存放到/etc/yum.repo.d中


wget http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS6-Base-163.repo

5、编辑CentOS6-Base-163.repo文件,将其中的$releasever更改为centos的版本号

下面是修改好的:

# CentOS-Base.repo

#

# The mirror system uses the connecting IP address of the client and the

# update status of each mirror to pick mirrors that are updated to and

# geographically close to the client. You should use this for CentOS updates

# unless you are manually picking other mirrors.

#

# If the mirrorlist= does not work for you, as a fall back you can try the

# remarked out baseurl= line instead.

#

#

[base]

name=CentOS-6 - Base - 163.com

baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/os/$basearch/

#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=6&arch=$basearch&repo=os

gpgcheck=1

gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#released updates

[updates]

name=CentOS-6 - Updates - 163.com

baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/updates/$basearch/

#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=6&arch=$basearch&repo=updates

gpgcheck=1

gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#additional packages that may be useful

[extras]

name=CentOS-6 - Extras - 163.com

baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/extras/$basearch/

#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=6&arch=$basearch&repo=extras

gpgcheck=1

gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages

[centosplus]

name=CentOS-6 - Plus - 163.com

baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/centosplus/$basearch/

#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=6&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus

gpgcheck=1

enabled=0

gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#contrib - packages by Centos Users

[contrib]

name=CentOS-6 - Contrib - 163.com

baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6/contrib/$basearch/

#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=6&arch=$basearch&repo=contrib

gpgcheck=1

enabled=0

gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6


6、yum clean all 清除原有缓存

7、yum makecache 获取yum列表

出现下面提示,表示yum更改完成:

Metadata Cache Created